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  • Your Good Partner in Biology Research

    Recombinant Human Appetite-regulating hormone(GHRL)

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    • 共轭:
      Avi-tag Biotinylated

      E. coli biotin ligase (BirA) is highly specific in covalently attaching biotin to the 15 amino acid AviTag peptide. This recombinant protein was biotinylated in vivo by AviTag-BirA technology, which method is BriA catalyzes amide linkage between the biotin and the specific lysine of the AviTag.

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    • 来源:
      Mammalian cell
    • 其他:


    • 纯度:
      >85% (SDS-PAGE)
    • 基因名:
    • Uniprot No.:
    • 别名:
      Appetite regulating hormone; Ghrelin 27; Ghrelin 28; Ghrelin and obestatin prepropeptide; Ghrelin; Ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide ; ghrl; GHRL_HUMAN; Growth hormone releasing peptide; Growth hormone secretagogue; Growth hormone-releasing peptide; M46 protein; Motilin related peptide; Motilin-related peptide; MTLRP ; Obestatin; Protein M46
    • 种属:
      Homo sapiens (Human)
    • 蛋白长度:
      Full Length of BC025791
    • 表达区域:
    • 氨基酸序列
    • 蛋白标签:
      The following tags are available.
      N-terminal His-tagged
      The tag type will be determined during production process. If you have specified tag type, please tell us and we will develop the specified tag preferentially.
    • 产品提供形式:
      Lyophilized powder
      Note: We will preferentially ship the format that we have in stock, however, if you have any special requirement for the format, please remark your requirement when placing the order, we will prepare according to your demand.
    • 复溶:
      We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20℃/-80℃. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
    • 储存条件:
      Store at -20°C/-80°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    • 保质期:
      The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
      Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
    • 货期:
      Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
      Note: All of our proteins are default shipped with normal blue ice packs, if you request to ship with dry ice, please communicate with us in advance and extra fees will be charged.
    • 注意事项:
      Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
    • Datasheet :
      Please contact us to get it.



    • 功能:
      Ghrelin is the ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1 (GHSR). Induces the release of growth hormone from the pituitary. Has an appetite-stimulating effect, induces adiposity and stimulates gastric acid secretion. Involved in growth regulation.; Obestatin may be the ligand for GPR39. May have an appetite-reducing effect resulting in decreased food intake. May reduce gastric emptying activity and jejunal motility.
    • 基因功能参考文献:
      1. In this review we highlight the multifaceted nature of ghrelin and summarize its glucoregulatory action and discuss the pharmacological value of ghrelin pathway inhibition for the treatment of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. PMID: 29412824
      2. This review examines the biochemical properties of the obestatin peptide (its structure, sequence, stability and distribution) and the candidate receptors through which it may act. It provides a balanced examination of the reported pancreatic and extrapancreatic actions of obestatin and evaluates its potential relevance with respect to diabetes therapy PMID: 29412827
      3. Expression of ghrelin and GHSR1a was studied in human pituitary adenomas. PMID: 28377557
      4. co-administration of Ghr and GH is a promising therapeutic tool for reversing immunosuppression caused by sepsis in the geriatric population. PMID: 28115288
      5. The aim of this study was to determine serum ghrelin and leptin levels in obese and lean Saudi women with Polycystic ovary syndrome and to investigate their relationship to the metabolic profiles in these women. PMID: 30131073
      6. A better understanding of ghrelin in depression could potentially help to optimize future therapeutic --{REVIEW} PMID: 29395244
      7. After Roux-en-Y Gastric bypass, over expression of Ghrelin gene occurs only in the excluded stomach with no correlation to T2 diabetes remission. PMID: 29307107
      8. our data indicate that the splice variant In1-ghrelin could play relevant functional roles in the regulation of breast cancer development and progression PMID: 29272342
      9. down-regulation of ghrelin receptors in substantia nigra pars compacta-dopaminergic (DA) neurons induced the initial dysfunction of DA neurons, leading to extrapyramidal disorder under Parkinson's disease. PMID: 29458391
      10. Data suggest that expression of mRNA for ghrelin and VEGFA are up-regulated in endometrium of women with recurrent miscarriage; thus, ghrelin and VEGFA may play roles in pathogenesis of recurrent miscarriage. These case-control studies were conducted with endometrial tissue obtained during secretory phase of menstrual cycle. (VEGFA = vascular endothelial growth factor A) PMID: 29221937
      11. Serum level of obestatin was significantly lower in the non-diabetic obese patients.Serum obestatin level strongly correlates with lipoprotein subfractions in non-diabetic obese patients. PMID: 29506551
      12. H. pylori infection and severity of gastric corpus pathology are associated with lower serum ghrelin. PMID: 29391762
      13. Data confirm that cord blood levels of ghrelin, leptin, and insulin of term newborns correlate with anthropometric parameters at birth (birth weight, head circumference, etc.). PMID: 29320365
      14. Concentrations of ghrelin were significantly lower in breast milk than in blood plasma from women that carried to term or gave birth prematurely. PMID: 29375043
      15. Individuals with higher levels of fasting ghrelin are more sensitive to reward, but less sensitive to PMID: 29136100
      16. low Plasma ghrelin expression is associated with metabolic syndrome. PMID: 28539201
      17. H. pylori infection decreased serum concentrations of leptin and obestatin in Mexican schoolchildren, suggesting alterations in regulating appetite and energy homeostasis. PMID: 28422951
      18. findings indicate that neither -604G/A and nor -501A/C polymorphisms of ghrelin gene are associated with PCOS, but suggest a relation between the presence of polymorphic allele of -501A/C polymorphism and LDL-C level in a sample of Iranian women. PMID: 29230615
      19. he 72Met allele of the preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism may be associated with rehabilitation of depression in male Chinese Han adolescents after the natural disaster. PMID: 28570394
      20. ghrelin effectively suppressed TNF-alpha-induced inflammatory factors' (including ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1, and IL-1beta) expression through inhibiting AMPK phosphorylation and p65 expression both in HUVEC and THP-1. PMID: 28653238
      21. The results showed that pretreatment with ghrelin reduced H2O2-induced cellular apoptosis and ROS accumulation, increased the expression levels of SOD and CAT, and decreased the expression level of MDA. PMID: 29129986
      22. Medium chain triglyceride nutritional supplementation increased the amount of activated ghrelin and NPY in anorexia nervosa patients. PMID: 28361739
      23. The establishment of the exact correlation between ghrelin, appetite and obesity could be vital for the fight against obesity. PMID: 29102924
      24. Studied expression of In1-ghrelin splice variant in prostate cancer and its possible role in tumorigenesis and disease progression. PMID: 28851363
      25. These results indicate that ghrelin promotes A549cell proliferation via GHSR-dependent PI3K/Akt/mTOR/P70S6K and ERK signaling pathways. PMID: 29524402
      26. findings are the first to associate methylation levels in blood with brain activity in obesity-related regions, and further support previous findings between ghrelin, brain activity and genetic differences PMID: 28194012
      27. The results of this study showed that higher serum levels of obestatin were associated with macro albuminuria suggesting that obestatin may have a role in underlying pathogenic mechanisms that leads to diabetic nephropathy. PMID: 28091434
      28. The level of serum ghrelin might be a biomarker of executive function and become a strong predictor of executive function impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID: 27689345
      29. Study found three gene variants (CLOCK-rs4864548, PEMT-rs936108, and GHRELIN-rs696217) that exhibited uncorrected gene-by-sleep duration interactions in relation to BMI z-scores in a cohort of New Zealand European children. However, no interactions were identified in percentage body fat differences. Notably, these interactions are evident without detectable effects on sleep duration. PMID: 28899534
      30. In short, thin children, despite elevated ghrelin production, the low IGF-I concentration is observed, probably due to undernutrition and worse IGF-I formation. In short, normal-weight children and in short, obese ones, ghrelin and IGF-I production is normal, and it seems that mechanisms responsible for their short stature are other than low IGF-I. PMID: 27557428
      31. findings suggest that the Leu72Leu genotype may lead to increased risk of Alcohol Use Disorder possibly via mechanisms involving a lower response to alcohol resulting in excessive alcohol consumption. PMID: 28481975
      32. Ghrelin is involved in appetite-regulating pathways during depression. PMID: 24671339
      33. Data suggest that subjects with anorexia nervosa display broad spectrum of physical activity (2479-26,047 steps/day) which shows a negative correlation with plasma kisspeptin levels and a positive association with plasma ghrelin levels. PMID: 27693487
      34. ghrelin was able to activate the proteasome in neural cells playing also a role in the interplay between the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy. PMID: 26033219
      35. The G/G genotype of the A-604G SNP in the GHRL gene is associated with altered serum ghrelin levels and obesity. PMID: 28597412
      36. Ghrelin SNPs rs26802, rs10490816, and rs696217 were not associated with risk for metabolic syndrome in Chinese Han population. PMID: 28164505
      37. Carrying a G to T substitution in rs696217 preproghrelin gene seems to mark a successful weight loss outcome after gastric bypass in morbidly obese patients PMID: 27681093
      38. Low plasma ghrelin level is associated with mild cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID: 28146431
      39. There might be a strong correlation between FGF-23 and ghrelin levels irrespective of the stage of chronic kidney disease and the dialysis modality PMID: 26125281
      40. Acylated ghrelin increases in obese individuals pre- and 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes post prandial. PMID: 28625043
      41. Hemodialysis improves upper GI symptoms and gastric slow waves in CKD patients. An increase in ghrelin and a decrease in GLP-1 might be involved in the HD-induced improvement in gastric slow waves. PMID: 28566304
      42. In the obese polycystic ovary syndrome group, anti-mullerian hormone was associated with ghrelin levels independent of age, insulin, and total testosterone. There was no association between total ghrelin and anti-mullerian hormone levels in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome, non-obese controls, or obese controls. PMID: 28004236
      43. Circulating obestatin levels were not different between lean and obese participants. PMID: 28174289
      44. Studies suggest that metformin treatment was not associated with a decrease in blood leptin levels, or increases in blood ghrelin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). PMID: 27380451
      45. Ghrelin was significantly higher and the obestatin/ghrelin ratio was significantly lower in celiac disease (CD) patients compared with both diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-d) and healthy controls (HC). Significant differences were found in the Leu72Met polymorphism among groups, with the reduction of the GT genotype and the T allele in both CD and IBS-d patients compared with HC. PMID: 27750262
      46. Synovial fluid ghrelin levels demonstrated an independent and negative association with meniscus injury, cartilage damage, and clinical severity in patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency. PMID: 28147215
      47. Based on the obtained results, it was proposed that ghrelin may be considered as playing a role in the etiopathogenesis of hyperemesis gravidarum that may result in disruption of the relationship between nesfatin-1 and ghrelin. PMID: 27235705
      48. In hemodialysis patients, plasma ghrelin level was associated with the endoscopic and serological severity of atrophy related to H. pylori infection. PMID: 28058025
      49. studies indicate that pharmacological targeting of the endogenous ghrelin system is a valuable approach to treat metabolic complications. PMID: 28398233
      50. Patients with intestinal metaplasia, a known precursor of gastric cancer, had significantly less plasma ghrelin levels and ghrelin/obestatin (G/O) ratio than those without intestinal metaplasia. PMID: 28419119



    • 亚细胞定位:
    • 蛋白家族:
      Motilin family
    • 组织特异性:
      Highest level in stomach. All forms are found in serum as well. Other tissues compensate for the loss of ghrelin synthesis in the stomach following gastrectomy.
    • 数据库链接:

      HGNC: 18129

      OMIM: 605353

      KEGG: hsa:51738

      STRING: 9606.ENSP00000335074

      UniGene: Hs.590080

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