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  • Your Good Partner in Biology Research

    Phospho-AKT2 (Ser474) Antibody

    • 货号:
    • 规格:
    • 图片:
      • Western blot analysis of extracts from 293 cells untreated(lane 1) or treated with serum(lane 2) using Akt2(Phospho-Ser474) Antibody.
      • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human lung carcinoma tissue using Akt2(Phospho-Ser474) Antibody(left) or the same antibody preincubated with blocking peptide(right).
      • Western blot analysis of extracts from 293 cells, treated with serum or calf intestinal phosphatase (CIP), using Akt2 (Phospho-Ser474) Antibody.
    • 其他:


    • Uniprot No.:
    • 宿主:
    • 反应种属:
    • 免疫原:
      Peptide sequence around phosphorylation site of serine 474 (Q-F-S(p)-Y-S) derived from Human Akt2.
    • 免疫原种属:
      Homo sapiens (Human)
    • 克隆类型:
    • 纯化方式:
      Antibodies were produced by immunizing rabbits with synthetic phosphopeptide and KLH conjugates. Antibodies were purified by affinity-chromatography using epitope-specific phosphopeptide. Non-phospho specific antibodies were removed by chromatogramphy usi
    • 浓度:
      It differs from different batches. Please contact us to confirm it.
    • 产品提供形式:
    • 应用范围:
    • 推荐稀释比:
      Application Recommended Dilution
      WB 1:500-1:1000
      IHC 1:50-1:100
    • Protocols:
    • 储存条件:
      Upon receipt, store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid repeated freeze.
    • 货期:
      Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 1-3 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time maybe differs from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.



    • 功能:
      AKT2 is one of 3 closely related serine/threonine-protein kinases (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) called the AKT kinase, and which regulate many processes including metabolism, proliferation, cell survival, growth and angiogenesis. This is mediated through serine and/or threonine phosphorylation of a range of downstream substrates. Over 100 substrate candidates have been reported so far, but for most of them, no isoform specificity has been reported. AKT is responsible of the regulation of glucose uptake by mediating insulin-induced translocation of the SLC2A4/GLUT4 glucose transporter to the cell surface. Phosphorylation of PTPN1 at 'Ser-50' negatively modulates its phosphatase activity preventing dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor and the attenuation of insulin signaling. Phosphorylation of TBC1D4 triggers the binding of this effector to inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins, which is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport. AKT regulates also the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen by phosphorylating GSK3A at 'Ser-21' and GSK3B at 'Ser-9', resulting in inhibition of its kinase activity. Phosphorylation of GSK3 isoforms by AKT is also thought to be one mechanism by which cell proliferation is driven. AKT regulates also cell survival via the phosphorylation of MAP3K5 (apoptosis signal-related kinase). Phosphorylation of 'Ser-83' decreases MAP3K5 kinase activity stimulated by oxidative stress and thereby prevents apoptosis. AKT mediates insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by phosphorylating TSC2 at 'Ser-939' and 'Thr-1462', thereby activating mTORC1 signaling and leading to both phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and in activation of RPS6KB1. AKT is involved in the phosphorylation of members of the FOXO factors (Forkhead family of transcription factors), leading to binding of 14-3-3 proteins and cytoplasmic localization. In particular, FOXO1 is phosphorylated at 'Thr-24', 'Ser-256' and 'Ser-319'. FOXO3 and FOXO4 are phosphorylated on equivalent sites. AKT has an important role in the regulation of NF-kappa-B-dependent gene transcription and positively regulates the activity of CREB1 (cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein). The phosphorylation of CREB1 induces the binding of accessory proteins that are necessary for the transcription of pro-survival genes such as BCL2 and MCL1. AKT phosphorylates 'Ser-454' on ATP citrate lyase (ACLY), thereby potentially regulating ACLY activity and fatty acid synthesis. Activates the 3B isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE3B) via phosphorylation of 'Ser-273', resulting in reduced cyclic AMP levels and inhibition of lipolysis. Phosphorylates PIKFYVE on 'Ser-318', which results in increased PI(3)P-5 activity. The Rho GTPase-activating protein DLC1 is another substrate and its phosphorylation is implicated in the regulation cell proliferation and cell growth. AKT plays a role as key modulator of the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway controlling the tempo of the process of newborn neurons integration during adult neurogenesis, including correct neuron positioning, dendritic development and synapse formation. Signals downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(3)K) to mediate the effects of various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). AKT mediates the antiapoptotic effects of IGF-I. Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly. May be involved in the regulation of the placental development.; One of the few specific substrates of AKT2 identified recently is PITX2. Phosphorylation of PITX2 impairs its association with the CCND1 mRNA-stabilizing complex thus shortening the half-life of CCND1. AKT2 seems also to be the principal isoform responsible of the regulation of glucose uptake. Phosphorylates C2CD5 on 'Ser-197' during insulin-stimulated adipocytes. AKT2 is also specifically involved in skeletal muscle differentiation, one of its substrates in this process being ANKRD2. Down-regulation by RNA interference reduces the expression of the phosphorylated form of BAD, resulting in the induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Phosphorylates CLK2 on 'Thr-343'.
    • 基因功能参考文献:
      1. AKT2 inhibition as a powerful therapeutic target against CSC. PMID: 29667444
      2. AKT2 and XIST expression was identified as a potential biomarker participating in the effect of ATP5J in colorectal cancer PMID: 29484395
      3. Authors present the first evidence that miR-608 behaves as a tumour suppressor in A549 and SK-LU-1 cells through the regulation of AKT2. PMID: 29075783
      4. the present study suggested that PHB2 may promote Prostate cancer cell migration by inhibiting the expression of AKT2. These results provide information regarding the role of PHB2 in Prostate cancer migration and malignancy PMID: 29207197
      5. Data found that S131 of Akt2 is not phosphorylated by CK2 although the consensus sequence recognized by CK2 (S/T-x-x-E/D/pS/pT) is conserved. A single sequence element, a T at position n+1, hampers phosphorylation, causing an alpha-helix structure preventing the recognition of its own consensus by CK2. Using synthetic peptides, study suggests that Akt2 S131 could be phosphorylated by kinases of the Plk family. PMID: 29494643
      6. Findings demonstrate that DSBs trigger pro-survival autophagy in an ATM- and p53-dependent manner, which is curtailed by AKT2 signaling. PMID: 28837154
      7. genetic association studies in population of men in Finland: Data suggest that a partial loss-of-function variant in AKT2 (p.Pro50Thr) is associated with type 2 diabetes in the population studied; this AKT2 variant is associated with reduced insulin-mediated glucose uptake in multiple insulin-sensitive tissues. PMID: 29141982
      8. miR2965p/AKT2 axis serves important roles in Hepatocellular carcinoma carcinogenesis and progression. PMID: 28586057
      9. miR296 is downregulated in tissue from patients with pancreatic cancer and pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. These findings suggested that it may function as a tumor suppressor via inhibiting the growth, migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. AKT2 was validated as a direct target of miR296 in pancreatic cancer cells. PMID: 28534950
      10. miR-143-3p acts as a novel tumor suppressive miRNA by regulating gastric tumor growth, migration and invasion through directly targeting AKT2 gene PMID: 28404925
      11. Our findings suggest that Akt2 might be associated with the resistance to anti-EGFR therapies, especially the use of erlotinib against PC, and that this resistance can be overcome by combined treatment with a PI3K inhibitor. Akt2 expression could become a predictive biomarker for erlotinib resistance in PC. PMID: 28440469
      12. Studied action of linoleic acid (LA) on cell migration and neoplasm invasiveness of breast cancer cells. Findings show Akt2 activation requires EGFR and PI3K activity, whereas migration and invasion are dependent on FFAR4, EGFR and PI3K/Akt activity. PMID: 28456993
      13. Analysis of genomic data from TCGA demonstrated coamplification of CCNE1 and AKT2 Overexpression of Cyclin E1 and AKT isoforms, in addition to mutant TP53, imparted malignant characteristics in untransformed fallopian tube secretory cells, the dominant site of origin of high-grade serous ovarian cancer PMID: 27663592
      14. Recent studies reveal that AKT2-NOX2 signaling has critical roles in Ca mobilization, ROS generation, degranulation, and control of the ligand-binding function of cell surface molecules, thereby promoting heterotypic cell-cell interactions in thromboinflammation. PMID: 28650848
      15. The expression levels of AKT2 and CDC25C showed lower expression in neural tube defects. And the percentage of methylated region of AKT2 promoter were increased in neural tube defects. PMID: 27871477
      16. Report frequency of genetic variation in Akt2 and discuss link to type 2 diabetes. PMID: 28931550
      17. IRF5 and IRF5 disease-risk variants increase glycolysis and human m1 macrophage polarization by regulating proximal signaling and Akt2 activation. PMID: 27545875
      18. the direct interaction of AKT2 and EF2 was found to be dynamically regulated in embryonic rat cardiomyocytes PMID: 23823123
      19. Data identify MTSS1 as a new Akt2-regulated gene, and point to suppression of MTSS1 as a key step in the metastasis-promoting effects of Akt2 in CRC cells. PMID: 28068324
      20. Akt2, Erk2, and IKK1/2 phosphorylate Bcl3, converting Bcl3 into a transcriptional coregulator by facilitating its recruitment to DNA. PMID: 28689659
      21. Results indicate that AKT2 modulates pulmonary fibrosis through inducing TGF-beta1 and IL-13 production by macrophages, and inhibition of AKT2 may be a potential strategy for treating Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID: 28455433
      22. The p.Glu17Lys mutation of AKT2 confers low-level constitutive activity upon the kinase and produces hypoglycemia with suppressed fatty acid release from adipose tissue, but not fatty liver, hypertriglyceridemia, or elevated hepatic de novo lipogenesis. PMID: 28541532
      23. Studies provide evidence that AKT2 counteracts oxidative-stress-induced apoptosis and is required for alpha-beta thymocyte survival and differentiation. Also, it plays a critical role in antagonizing cardiomyocyte apoptosis. [review] PMID: 26953242
      24. Akt2 role in the human lung cancer cell proliferation, growth, motility, invasion and endothelial cell tube formation PMID: 26234648
      25. This study demonstrates novel regulatory circuits involving miR-148a-3p/ERBB3/AKT2/c-myc and DNMT1 that controls bladder cancer progression, which may be useful in the development of more effective therapies against bladder cancer. PMID: 27906180
      26. Both in our animal model and in human Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the AKT2-NF-kappaB-LCN-2 signalling axis is involved in activating the inflammatory response. PMID: 28026019
      27. identified a novel association between the coding variant (p.Pro50Thr) in AKT2 and fasting plasma insulin (FI), a gene in which rare fully penetrant mutations are causal for monogenic glycemic disorders. Carriers of the FI-increasing allele had increased 2-h insulin values, decreased insulin sensitivity, and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID: 28341696
      28. AKT2 can regulate miR-200a in a histology- or stage-specific manner and this regulation is independent of subsequent involvement of miR-200a in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. PMID: 27189341
      29. Quinoline-type inhibitors bind in the Akt2 PH domain. PMID: 28036396
      30. TGF-beta signaling through Akt2 induces phosphorylation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 (hnRNP E1) at serine-43 (p-hnRNP E1), driving epithelial to mesenchymal transition and metastasis. PMID: 27067543
      31. miR-29b plays an important role in TGF-beta1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in ARPE-19 cells by targeting Akt2. PMID: 25263462
      32. miR-148a functions as tumor suppressor in Renal cell carcinoma by targeting AKT2. PMID: 27878305
      33. MiR-650 could inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts through targeted regulation of AKT2 expression. PMID: 28129626
      34. High AKT2 expression is associated with gallbladder cancer. PMID: 26803515
      35. miR-302b inhibits SMMC-7721 cell invasion and metastasis by targeting AKT2 PMID: 26254095
      36. No association has been found between AKT2 polymorphisms and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk. PMID: 26828791
      37. High AKT2 expression is associated with ovarian cancer. PMID: 26512921
      38. Active, phosphorylated Akt2 translocates to the nucleus in Notch-expressing cells, resulting in GSK-3beta inactivation in this compartment. PMID: 26711268
      39. controls endothelial Jagged1 expression and, thereby, Notch signalling regulating VSMC maintenance. PMID: 26971877
      40. These studies identify Akt2 as a critical kinase that regulates radixin phosphorylation and leads to Mrp-2 translocation and function. PMID: 26500117
      41. miR-612 directly suppressed AKT2, which in turn inhibited the downstream epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related signaling pathway. PMID: 26158514
      42. the correlation between RLN2 and p-AKT or RLN2 and p-ERK1/2 expression was investigated. PMID: 26229955
      43. the biological effect of Akt2 in colorectal cancer cells PMID: 25134663
      44. miR-137 which is frequently down-regulated in gastric cancer is potentially involved in gastric cancer tumorigenesis and metastasis by regulating AKT2 related signal pathways PMID: 26102366
      45. miR-615-5p inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by targeting AKT2 PMID: 25856297
      46. QSAR based docking studies identify marine algal callophycin A as inhibitor of protein kinase B beta. PMID: 25936945
      47. we assayed expression of myosin II.. this assay is a powerful predictor of the use of ZEB2/Akt2 as a marker for tumor progression in serous ovarian cancers. PMID: 25894377
      48. Up-regulation of AKT2 was associated with chemoresistance in renal cell carcinoma. PMID: 25951903
      49. findings suggested that AKT2 may be one of the targets of miR29s in gastric cancer PMID: 25428377
      50. PIK3CA and AKT2 mutations occurred at low frequency in gastric cancer. PMID: 25771729



    • 相关疾病:
      Diabetes mellitus, non-insulin-dependent (NIDDM); Hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia with hemihypertrophy (HIHGHH)
    • 亚细胞定位:
      Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Early endosome.
    • 蛋白家族:
      Protein kinase superfamily, AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family, RAC subfamily
    • 组织特异性:
      Expressed in all cell types so far analyzed.
    • 数据库链接:

      HGNC: 392

      OMIM: 125853

      KEGG: hsa:208

      STRING: 9606.ENSP00000375892

      UniGene: Hs.631535

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